HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY

Sources of Energy

  • The level of energy consumption indicates the level of industrialization and prosperity of countries. Recently, annual energy consumption per capita in Turkey has reached 2,100 kWh (kilowatt hours), which is still below the world average of 2,500 kWh. The average energy consumption for the developed countries is 8,900 kWh, but it varies from 12,322 kWh in the USA to 827 kWh in China. Industrialization is our main target on the road to economic and social development. Therefore, it is essential to meet the energy demands of industry and other consumers in a timely and sustainable manner.

  • While total energy generation in Turkey in the 1950’s was a mere 800 GWh (gigawatt hours), this figure has increased by about 190 times, reaching 151,000 GWh/year today. The current installed capacity in Turkey is 37,500 MW (megawatt), which could generate an average of 220,000 GWh/year; however, total generation remains at 151,000 GWh for reasons such as failures, maintenance and repair activities, operation policy, economic recession, low demand, drought, efficiency, etc. In other words, average capacity utilisation remains at 69%. Capacity utilisation has been 59% in thermal plants and 105% in hydroelectric power plants. 31% of energy generation in Turkey depends on hydroelectric power, which is a renewable energy source, and the remaining 69% on thermal power (natural gas, lignite, coal, fuel oil, etc., which are fossil fuels). A special emphasis has recently been placed on alternative energy sources such as wind and geothermal power and there have been some steps taken towards introducing the use of nuclear power as well.


INSTALLED CAPACITY AND GENERATION IN TURKEY *

Installed Capacity and Annual Generation

2003

2004 (Provisional)

CAPACITY

ACTUAL

Capacity

Use

CAPACITY

ACTUAL

Capacity

Use

Installed (MW)

Generation

(GWh)

Generation

(GWh)

Ratio

(%)

Installed (MW)

Generation

(GWh)

Generation

(GWh)

Ratio

(%)

THERMAL POWER

COAL

8,239

53,940

32,253

60

8,923

58,391

34,558

59

FUEL OIL

3,198

21,085

9,196

44

3,202

21,167

9,800

46

NATURAL GAS

11,510

86,154

63,536

74

12,640

94,867

59,098

62

OTHERS

28

207

116

56

27

207

76

37

TOTAL

22,974

161,387

105,101

65

24,792

174,632

103,532

59

Geothermal and Wind Power

34

156

150

96

34

156

160

103

Hydroelectric Power

12,579

45,152

35,329

78

12,654

45,435

47,614

105

GENERAL TOTAL

35,587

206,695

140,580

68

37,480

220,223

151,306

69

(*) Reference: APK (Research, Planning and Coordination Department) of TEİAŞ (Turkish Electricity Transmission Authority, January 2005

  • Natural gas and oil in Turkey are insufficient energy resources. Therefore, Turkey has to import oil, natural gas, and even hard coal to meet its energy needs. In recent years, an upward trend has taken place in the consumption of natural gas in Turkey for both domestic and industrial use. Natural gas power plants aim to meet the growing energy demands of industries. Therefore, the share of hydroelectric power has dropped while the share of thermal energy has increased in overall energy generation. Nevertheless, the European Union places great emphasis on green power in energy policies (hydroelectric, wind, solar, and biomass energies). Thus, it is important to harmonize the energy policy and relevant legislation in Turkey with European energy policy. Consequently, the weight of hydroelectric power in overall generation needs to be increased. The two authorities in charge of developing hydropower potential are DSİ and the Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration. The latter focuses more on survey and planning, whereas DSİ deals with both planning and realization of projects.
  • The following table makes a comparison of various sources of energy in terms of air pollution, effects on climate, normal operational radioactivity, eyesores, meeting peak demand, and risk vulnerability. This table indicates that hydroelectric power plants are the least risky and the least harmful ones in comparison with the other types of power plants.


A Scaled Graphic Showing Drawbacks of Various Power Plants

    Hydroelectric power plants should be preferred because of their environment-friendly technologies with the lowest risk potential. These plants are able to respond to unexpected demand fluctuations. Therefore, they are operated as peak power plants in Turkey as well as in other countries. Hydroelectric power is environment-friendly, clean, renewable, able to meet peak demands, highly efficient (over 90%), involves no fuel cost, is a balancer of energy prices, has a long life- span (200 years), its cost recovery is short-run (5-10 years), its operational costs are low, (approximately 0.2 cent/kWh), and it is an indigenous source of energy which is national and natural.

Note: In the above tables, production values show the figures that cumulative electricity productions (kWh) obtained until 2003 have been multiplied by 5 cents for one kilowatt hour.

  • If half of the world’s economically viable hydroelectric potential were developed, greenhouse gas emissions would be decreased by 13%. Compared to other power plants, hydroelectric plants have the lowest operational cost, the longest operational life, and the highest efficiency rates. There are economic, environmental and strategic reasons for giving priority/incentives to hydropower stations among other power plants. Moreover, HEPPs use our own national resources.

Turkey’s Hydroelectric Potential

  • The hydroelectric potential of a country is calculated under the presumption that all natural flows, until the country’s borders or until the sea, will be used with 100% efficiency. This calculation produces the gross theoretical hydroelectric potential of a country. However, even the latest technologies available today cannot make utmost use of this potential. Therefore, the maximum potential that can be used in the existing technologies is referred to as the technically viable hydroelectric potential. Nevertheles
  • s, not every technically viable utility is economically viable. Thus, the portion of the technically viable potential that can be realized under the existing and expected local economic conditions is referred to as the economically viable hydroelectric potential. Turkey’s theoretical hydroelectric potential is 1% of that of the World and 16% of that of Europe.

HYDROELECTRIC POTENTIAL OF THE WORLD

AND TURKEY

 

 

Gross Theoretical Potential of HEPP (GWh/year)

Technically Viable Potential of HEPP (GWh/year)

Economically Viable Potential of HEPP (GWh/year)

WORLD

40,150,000

14,060,000

8,905,000

EUROPE

3,150,000

1,225,000

800 ,000

TURKEY

433,000

216,000

127,381



  • The gross theoretical viable hydroelectric potential in Turkey is 433 billion kWh and the technically viable potential is 216 billion kWh. The economically viable potential, however, is 127 billion kWh. The tax deductions and subsidy policies for green energy in the European Union will contribute to efforts aimed at increasing the economically viable potential of hydroelectricity.

At present Turkey has 135 hydroelectric power plants in operation with total installed capacity of 12,631 MW generating an average of 45,325 GWh/year, which is 36% of the economically viable hydroelectric potential. Forty-one hydroelectric power plants are currently under construction with 3,187 MW of installed capacity to generate an average annual 10,645 GWh representing 8% of the economically viable potential. In the future, 502 more hydroelectric power plants will be constructed to be able to make maximum use of the remaining 71,411 GWh/year of economically viable potential. As a result of these works, a total of 678 hydroelectric power plants with 36,260 MW will tame rivers to harness the economically viable hydropower of Turkey.

    Status of Economically Viable Potential

    Number of Hydro- electric Plants

    Total Installed Capacity 
    (MW)

    Average Annual Generation 
    (GWh/year)

    Ratio 

    (%)

    In Operation

    135

    12,631

    45,325

    36

    Under Construction

    41

    3,187

    10,645

    8

    In Program

    502

    20,442

    71,411

    56

    Total Potential

    678

    36,260

    127,381

    100


    • The USA has developed 86% of the country’s technically viable hydroelectric potential while Japan has realized 78%, Norway 68%, Canada 56% and Turkey 21%. The International Energy Agency (IEA) has foreseen a 53% increase of the current use of world hydroelectric power and other renewable energy sources by 2020, which is a sign that all hydroelectric potential will be put into operation. The European Commission has incorporated an action plan into the European Union strategies to double the ratio of renewable energy sources in gross internal energy consumption (from 6% to 12%) and to increase the same ratio to 22.1% in terms of electricity generation by 2010.
    • The annual increase in energy consumption is 6-8% in Turkey, except for recession years. In order to meet this growing demand, Turkey has to invest US$ 3-4 billion in new energy projects each year. As can be seen all over the world, power generation is a vital issue, therefore it is important for every country that energy be produced in self-sufficient, reliable, constant, and economical ways. For that matter, all energy alternatives should be thoroughly evaluated, starting from hydroelectric power potentials running with local energy sources, which are not dependent on other countries.

    LONG-TERM ENERGY SUPPLY FORECASTS FOR TURKEY

     

    Type of Power Plant

    Year 2010

    Year 2015

    Year 2020

     

    Rainy

    Dry

     

    Rainy

    Dry

     

    Rainy

    Dry

    MW

    Billion kWh

    MW

    Billion kWh

    MW

    Billion kWh

    Thermal

    30,583

    211

    211

    45,603

    314

    314

    62,273

    426

    426

    Renewable (Hydropower)

    18,234

    62

    46

    25,670

    89

    60

    34,076

    118

    77

    Total Supply

    48,817

    273

    257

    71,273

    403

    374

    96,349

    544

    503

    Reference: TEİAŞ-Turkey Electric Energy Generation Planning Studies (2005-2020)-Oct. 2004

     


    HYDROELECTRIC POWER DEVELOPMENT IN TURKEY

     

    POTENTIAL : 36,260 MW (678 HEPPs)

    IN OPERATION : 12,631 MW (135 HEPPs)

    • DSİ : 10,215 MW ( 53 HEPPs)
    • OTHER : 2,416 MW ( 82 HEPPs)

    • As a primary executive public agency in hydroelectric power development, State Hydraulic Works has developed 10,215 MW (81%) of the total of 12,631 MW realized installed capacity in Turkey. 20 of the 25 largest realized hydroelectric power plants in Turkey have been developed by State Hydraulic Works.

    Turkey’s Hydroelectric Power Development in Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) and in the Rest of Turkey

    • The following pie chart displays the role of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) within the existing economically viable hydroelectric potential (127.3 billion kWh) in Turkey in terms of hydroelectric generation today and in the future. The chart indicates that the units of GAP in operation are supplying 16% of the total hydropower potential of Turkey. With a further development of 5% in GAP in the future, the total contribution will reach 21%, which consists of 27.4 billion kWh. The GAP scheme has already had a considerable impact (45%) on overall hydropower generation in Turkey. In other words, 20.4 billion kWh out of 45.3 billion kWh of hydroelectric generation has been supplied by the power plants in the GAP project to date. The hydropower realization ratio in GAP has reached 74% within the project itself.

    • There ongoing plans for creation of a second chain of major hydroelectric projects around the Coruh Basin. When all of the projects (8,260 GWh) in the Coruh River Master Plan are completed, this chain of projects will exploit 6.4% of Turkey’s overall hydroelectric potential. In order to define the work phases of these projects, PR for “Plans Ready”; FDR for “Final Design Ready”; UC for “Under Construction” and IO for "In Operation" are used.
    These power plants projects are: 
    Laleli (PR, 99 MW-204 GWh),
    İspir (PR, 54 MW-327 GWh), 
    Güllübağ (PR, 84 MW-285 GWh), 
    Aksu (PR, 120 MW-344 GWh), 
    Arkun (PR, 222 MW-788 GWh),
    Yusufeli (FDR, 540 MW-1,705 GWh),
    Artvin (FDR, 332 MW-1,026 GWh), 
    Deriner (UC, 670 MW- 2,118 GWh), 
    Borçka (UC, 300 MW-1,039 GWh) ,
    Muratlı (IO, 115 MW-444 GWh).

    • The most important step of the energy conversion process is the construction of dams with large reservoirs that require specialization or expertise in these types of constructions. Here are some of the major steps of dam construction:

    Once the feasibility study of a dam is completed, the final design and application projects are prepared before construction actually begins.

    The first step in construction is the diversion of the riverbed by means of a diversion tunnel and cofferdam in order to dry the construction site. 

    Diversion structures are so dimensioned that they can resist a flood with a recurrence interval of 25 years. 

    Excavation for the dam body commences. 

    Filling of the dam body starts. 

     As the body rises, safety discharge units (spillway, sluice gate) are constructed. 

     If a dam has a Hydroelectric Power Plant (HEPP), the electro-mechanical equipment is installed. 

     

    DSİ’s Hydroelectric Power Plants Under Construction

     

    NO

    NAME OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT

     

    PROVINCE

    INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW)

    ANNUAL GENERATION (GWh)

    COMPLETION

    DATE

    1

    AKKÖPRÜ

    MUĞLA

    115

    343

    2007

    2

    ALPASLAN-I

    MUŞ

    160

    488

    2007

    3

    ATASU

    TRABZON

    5

    27

    2009

    4

    BOĞAZKÖY

    BURSA

    10

    20

    2008

    5

    BORÇKA**

    ARTVİN

    300

    1,039

    2006

    6

    CİNDERE

    DENİZLİ

    29

    88

    2007

    7

    ÇİNE

    AYDIN

    40

    118

    2007

    8

    DERİNER**

    ARTVİN

    670

    2,118

    2008

    9

    DİM

    ANTALYA

    38

    123

    2007

    10

    ERMENEK**

    KARAMAN

    309

    1,187

    2007

    11

    KILAVUZLU

    K.MARAŞ

    57

    100

    2007

    12

    KİĞI

    BİNGÖL

    140

    423

    2009

    13

    KİRAZLIKÖPRÜ

    KASTAMONU

    12

    41

    2008

    14

    KÖPRÜBAŞI

    ZONGULDAK

    74

    203

    2008

    15

    KUMKÖY

    SAMSUN

    10

    65

    2006

    16

    MANYAS

    BALIKESİR

    20

    59

    2007

    17

    MURATLI**

    ARTVİN

    115

    444

    2005

    18

    OBRUK

    ÇORUM

    200

    473

    2007

    19

    SÜREYYABEY (Aş.Çekerek)

    YOZGAT

    14

    50

    2008

    20

    ŞANLIURFA –TÜNEL

    ŞANLIURFA

    50

    124

    2005

    21

    TOPÇAM

    ORDU

    60

    200

    2007

    22

    TORUL

    GÜMÜŞHANE

    103

    322

    2006

    23

    ULUBAT- ÇINARCIK*

    BURSA

    120

    548

    2009

    24

    UZUNÇAYIR

    TUNCELİ

    71

    317

    2007

     

    TOTAL

     

    2,722

    8,920

     

    * The private sector will construct the HEPP due to licences issed by EPDK (Energy Market Regulatory Authority).

    ** Being built pursuant to intergovernmental agreement with full financing.

     

    DAMS AND HYDROPOWER STATIONS IN OPERATION IN TURKEY (CAPACITIES LARGER THAN 100 MW)

    No

     

    Dam & Generating Facility

    Construction

    Location

     

    Embank-ment Volume ( 1,000 m 3)

    Crest Level

    (m)

    Height

    Normal

    Reservoir Volume

    (hm 3)

    Lake Area

    (km 2)

    Energy Benefit

    Starting Year

    Completion Year

    River

    Province

    From Foundation

    (m)

    From River Bed

    (m)

    Normal

    Water Level

    (m)

    Capacity (MW)

    Annual Generation (GWh)

    1

    ATATÜRK

    1983

    1992

    Fırat

    Şanlıurfa

    84,500

    549.00

    169.00

    166.00

    542.00

    48,700

    817.00

    2,400

    8,900

    2

    KARAKAYA

    1976

    1987

    Fırat

    Diyarbakır

    2,000

    698.00

    173.00

    158.00

    693.00

    9,580

    268.00

    1,800

    7,354

    3

    KEBAN

    1965

    1975

    Fırat

    Elazığ

    15,585

    848.00

    207.00

    163.00

    845.00

    31,000

    675.00

    1,330

    6,000

    4

    ALTINKAYA

    1980

    1988

    Kızılırmak

    Samsun

    16,000

    195.00

    195.00

    140.00

    190.00

    5,763

    118.31

    700

    1,632

    5

    BİRECİK (2)

    1993

    2000

    Fırat

    Ş.Urfa

    9,209

    389.00

    63.50

    53.50

    385.00

    1,220

    56.25

    672

    2,518

    6

    OYMAPINAR

    1977

    1984

    Manavgat

    Antalya

    676

    185.00

    185.00

    157.00

    184.00

    300

    4.70

    540

    1,620

    7

    BERKE (2)

    1991

    2001

    Ceyhan

    K.Maraş

    735

    346.00

    201.00

    186.00

    345.00

    427

    7.80

    510

    1,672

    8

    HASAN UĞURLU

    1971

    1981

    Yeşilırmak

    Samsun

    9,223

    195.00

    175.00

    135.00

    190.00

    1,074

    22.66

    500

    1,217

    9

    SIR (2)

    1987

    1991

    Ceyhan

    K.Maraş

    494

    443.00

    116.00

    106.00

    440.00

    1,120

    47.50

    284

    725

    10

    GÖKÇEKAYA

    1967

    1972

    Sakarya

    Eskişehir

    650

    392.00

    158.00

    115.00

    388.00

    910

    20.00

    278

    562

    11

    BATMAN

    1986

    1998

    Batman

    Batman

    5,400

    668.50

    85.50

    71.50

    665.00

    1,175

    49.25

    198

    483

    12

    KARKAMIŞ

    1996

    1999

    Fırat

    Maraş

    1,537

    346.00

    40.00

    22.50

    340.00

    157

    28

    180

    652

    13

    ÖZLÜCE

    1985

    1998

    Peri

    Bingöl

    14,000

    1,144.00

    144.00

    124.00

    1140.00

    1,075

    25.80

    170

    413

    14

    ÇATALAN

    1982

    1996

    Seyhan

    Adana

    17,000

    130.00

    82.00

    70.00

    125.00

    2,126

    81.86

    169

    596

    15

    SARIYAR (2)

    1950

    1956

    Sakarya

    Ankara

    568

    480.00

    108.00

    90.00

    475.00

    1,900

    83.83

    160

    400

    16

    GEZENDE

    1979

    1990

    Ermenek

    İçel

    83

    335.00

    75.00

    71.00

    333.00

    92

    3.97

    159

    528

    17

    ASLANTAŞ

    1975

    1984

    Ceyhan

    Adana

    8,493

    160.00

    95.00

    78.00

    146.00

    1,150

    49.00

    138

    569

    18

    HİRFANLI

    1953

    1959

    Kızılırmak

    Kırşehir

    2,000

    860.00

    83.00

    78.00

    851.00

    5,980

    263.00

    128

    400

    19

    MENZELET

    1980

    1989

    Ceyhan

    K.Maraş

    8,700

    614.50

    156.50

    136.50

    609.40

    1,950

    42.00

    124

    515

    20

    KILIÇKAYA

    1980

    1989

    Kelkit

    Sivas

    6,900

    855.00

    134.00

    103.00

    850.00

    1,400

    64.42

    124

    332

    21

    DİCLE

    1986

    1997

    Dicle

    Diyarbakır

    2,180

    718.00

    87.50

    75.00

    715.50

    595

    24.00

    110

    298