Domestic Water Supply Department Activities

  • The General Secretary of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, said on “World Water Day” that “Access to safe water is a fundamental human need and therefore a basic human right. Contaminated water jeopardizes both the physical and social health of all people. It is an affront to human dignity.”

  • The DSİ General Directorate is, according to Law No 1053 approved by the Council of Ministers in 1968, responsible for domestic and industrial water supply to cities with a population of more than 100,000.

  • Based on the results of the 2000 census, there are 55 settlements with populations over 100,000 in Turkey. Between 1968 and 2005, DSİ has been authorized by the Council of Ministers to supply water to 45 cities, which are as follows: Adana, Adapazarı, Adıyaman, Afyon, Ankara, Antalya, Aydın, Balıkesir, Batman, Bodrum, Bursa, Çorum, Çorlu, Denizli, Diyarbakır, Elazığ, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Gaziantep, İskenderun, İstanbul, İzmir, İzmit, Kahramanmaraş, Karabük, Karaman, Kars, Kayseri, Kırıkkale, Kızıltepe, Kilis, Konya, Malatya, Manavgat, Manisa, Mersin, Samsun, Sivas, Şanlıurfa, Tarsus, Trabzon, Tekirdağ, Uşak, Yozgat and Zonguldak .

  • Of the above- mentioned cities, water supply projects for 17 cities, namely: Ankara, Aydın, Bodrum, Bursa, Çorum, Erzurum, Gaziantep, İstanbul, İzmir, Kahramanmaraş, Karabük, Kars, Kilis, Mardin-Kızıltepe, Mersin, Sivas and Trabzon as well as the “Water Supply Project for the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” are in progress at present. The master plan, feasibility study, final design, and construction work of water supply projects for the above-mentioned 17 cities are continuing. After the completion of the construction works, these facilities will be transferred to the related municipality.

Pursuant to Law No. 1053, as of the beginning of 2005, DSİ has supplied an approximate annual total of 2.5 km 3 of domestic water complying with drinking water standards. This annual water supply will reach 5.3 km 3 with completion of the projects which are under construction, or at the final design and planning stages .  


  • The amount of water extracted from groundwater resources developed by DSİ Regional Directorates by means of drilling wells for municipalities and other institutions is not included in the above- mentioned annual volume because these works are not done within the scope of Law No.1053 .
  • The approximate total length of transmission pipeline , including concrete, steel and glass- reinforced pipe (GRP) with different diameters has reached 1,000 km since 1968.
  • Water supply projects developed by DSİ have met one third of domestic and industrial water consumption requirements so far.
  • 2 billion m 3 of water annually is treated in treatment plants in accordance with European standards. The water treatment plant projects of 11 cities, namely Ankara, İzmir, Bursa, Gaziantep, İstanbul, Konya, Mersin, Samsun, Diyarbakır, Balıkesir, and Şanlıurfa have been developed by DSİ .

THE STATUS OF DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY PROJECTS AS OF THE BEGINNING OF 2005

POPULATION

CURRENT STATUS

NAME OF CITY

1990

2000

TOTAL AMOUNT OF WATER SUPPLIED

(hm³/year))

WATER SUPPLIED BY DSİ

(hm³/year)

PROJECTS UNDER CONSTRUCTION(hm³/year)

FINAL DESIGN READY(hm³/

year)

IN PLAN / IN FINAL DESIGN(hm³/year)

Adana

1,125,149

1,397,853

76

-

-

236

-

Ankara

2,836,802

3,540,522

409

367

-

-

323

Antalya

602,097

936,330

55

26

-

85

-

Aydın

107,011

209,162

-

-

-

-

34

Balıkesir

468,758

577,595

65

53

-

-

-

Bursa

1,153,007

1,630,940

173

125

-

-

58

Çorum

254,272

311,897

31

19

-

-

-

Diyarbakır

595,440

817,692

148

128

-

95

-

Elaziğ

274,045

364,274

35

23

-

37

-

Erzurum

400,983

560,551

33

-

70

-

-

Gaziantep

738,245

1,009,126

104

96

48

-

-

İstanbul

6,779,594

9,085,599

684

698

268

-

922

İzmir

2,137,721

2,732,669

340

321

-

-

59

Kahraman- Maraş

407,215

536,007

27

-

34

-

-

Karabük

152,469

157,756

24

-

32

-

-

Kars

130,391

142,145

10

10

-

-

-

Kayseri

606,001

732,354

62

-

-

35

156

Kilis

121,752

114,724

-

-

6

-

-

Konya

963,128

1,294,817

98

71

-

48

-

Manavgat

-

-

183

183

-

-

-

Mardin-Kiziltepe

60,134

113,143

-

-

32

-

-

Mersin+ Tarsus

609,865

754,224

158

144

-

-

-

Samsun

527,362

635,254

73

63

-

63

-

Sivas

384,832

421,804

22

33

-

-

-

Şanliurfa

551,614

842,129

141

135

-

-

-

Trabzon

143,941

281,957

-

-

-

-

101

TR of North Cyprus

-

-

7

7

-

-

75

TOTAL

22,131,828

29,200,524

2,958

2,502

490

599

1,728

  • Average annual domestic and potable water supply amount per person was 98 litres/day in the 1980s, 192 litres/day in the 1990s, 210 litres/day in the 2000s. DSİ has so far supplied domestic water for 29 million people as of the beginning of 2005.
  • Chemical and physical analysis of water is carried out by means of 1,090 stations, which take 4,713 water samples in 24 DSİ Regional Directorates. 

Domestic and Industrial Water Supply from Groundwater

  • Law No. 167 – the “Law Related to Groundwater Resources” regards DSİ as the executive authority for groundwater resources use. Pursuant to the Law, groundwater allocation and permission to use groundwater for domestic purposes are to be implemented by DSİ. Groundwater supply from depths greater than 10 m depth requires a licence from DSİ. The amount of groundwater allocated for domestic and industrial use is 5.2 km 3 as of 2005. İzmir, Elazığ, Antalya, Kahramanmaraş, Konya, and Diyarbakır are the cities being supplied by means of groundwater resources .
İstanbul Yeşilçay and Melen Water Supply Projects

The Yeşilçay project has been designed to convey water from the Göksu and Çanak rivers in the Ağva region 60 km away from Ömerli Dam to meet the medium-term water need of İstanbul. At the first stage, a volume of 145 million m 3 of water will be secured annually by the two regulators, which will be constructed on these rivers. The water collected by the Sungurlu and İsaköy regulators on the rivers will then be conveyed to the surge tank via the Osmangazi Pumping Station at İsaköy, the biggest of its kind in Europe, and the 2,560 m pumping main. 

The water will then be carried by gravity through the pipeline to the Darlık and Kömürlük tunnels, and reach the Emirli treatment plant, the construction of which has already been completed. Thus, the demand for drinking water for an additional population of approximately 1.5 million inhabitants will be met. After construction of the İsaköy and Sungurlu regulators, 190 million m 3 will be added to the system, and the volume of water supply will reach 335 million m 3 per year. 

  • The total investment amount of the Yeşilçay system is estimated as US$ 271 million, and a total loan of US$ 145 million has been secured in two parts by Kuwait. The first stage of the system was inaugurated in May, 2003.
  • Another project developed for meeting the municipal water demand of Istanbul in the medium and long-term is known as the Greater Melen Project. The Greater Melen System, which will supply 268 million m³ of water per year at the first stage and 1 billion and 180 million m³ of water per year at the end of the last stage (4 th stage), will meet the water needs of Istanbul until 2040. 

  • The raw water taken from the Melen River intake structure will be pumped to Cumhuriyet Water Treatment Plant at Ömerli by means of a transmission line ( 185 km). The other components of the transmission line are the Alaçalı reservoir, the Şile-Alaçalı and Alaçalı-Ömerli tunnels, which are of a total length of 25 km.
  • The first stage of the Melen System, which features 25 km of tunnel in the 180 km transmission line, will secure an additional annual 268 million m³ volume of water to meet the the potable and domestic water needs of an extra 2.75 million people in İstanbul.
  • The project has been divided 12 separate work units including consultancy services. The total cost is US$ 1,180 million, in which the domestic money requirement is 518 million US Dollars and the foreign money requirement is US$ 662 million. For the realization of the project, a loan of US$ 900 million has been secured in two parts from the Japanese Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC).
  • The Water water source of the Melen Project is the Melen River, which is 180 km east of İstanbul. The water treatment plant will be located in the northern part of the existing Ömerli reservoir and will treat 720,000 m 3 of water per day. The treated water will be conveyed finally to the Kağıthane treatment plant service reservoir via the Cumhuriyet-Beykoz tunnel and the pipeline under the Bosphorus.
  • At the first stage of the Yeşilçay and Melen projects, approximately 235 km of pipeline 2.5 and 3 meters in diameter is being laid. In addition, the largest water treatment plant in Turkey, the largest treated water pumping station of Europe, and the pipeline under the Bosphorus are under construction. When the first stages of the Yeşilçay and Melen systems have been completed, the İstanbul metropolitan area will be supplied with an additional annual water volume of 415 million m 3. In other words, DSİ will secure 115 litres of additional water per capita in 2040 by means of these large investments.

Manavgat Stream Water Supply Project

  • The Manavgat Water Supply Project has been completed to produce 500,000 m 3 of drinking water for sea transportation to serve Turkey and other countries. 250,000 m 3 of this amount is treated water, whereas the rest is as raw water.

  • Sale of Manavgat water to other countries is currently under consideration. Therefore, development of a national policy concerning determination of unit water prices is of crucial importance. This project would set a good precedent in case of realization of similar projects in other countries; this could finally lead to the establishment of an international water stock exchange under the leadership of Turkey.
  • The Commission for Privatization took over the facility within the context of privatization with Decision No. 2003/58, dated 08 th .09. 2003. This indicates that the facilities will be privatized and the private sector will undertake exportation of the fresh water to countries in the Region.

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) Water Supply Project

Transportation of Water to TRNC by means of Water Bags

  • The project aims to transport 7 million m 3 of water from Soğuksu Stream to Lefkoşa and Gazi Magosa via the Kumköy reservoirs in Cyprus. The construction works on Soğuksu loading and Kumköy unloading installations have been completed. The system was transferred to TRNC Water Department on 12 th. 06. 2002

  • Water transportation operations by means of water bags, known as “normed”, were started on 25 th .07. 1998, but satisfactory results could not be obtained. Therefore, the contract of the carrier firm was terminated in 2002, and a new firm was selected.
  • Documents for submission of tenders for transportation of water from Turkey to the TRNC by tanker are being prepared by TRNC. 

Water Supply Project to TRNC by Pipeline

  • In order to meet the water demand of the TRNC, another project has been developed to transfer water by pipeline from Turkey to the TRNC and engineering services for that project have been included in the investment programme of DSİ since 2002. The project involves shore and off-shore structures. The shore structures consist of construction of a dam, storage tanks, pumping stations, and transmission lines. The off-shore structures consist of manufacturing facilities and construction of a pipeline on a supported hanger at a depth of 250 m. Water will be carried from the Alaköprü Dam to be constructed on the Anamur Dragon River in Turkey through pressurized steel pipelines to the existing small Geçitköy Small Dam in TRNC. By raising the height of the Geçitköy Small Dam, it will be converted to Geçitköy Dam, the reservoir of which will be used for water storage for the purposes of water supply and irrigation. The project was approved by the Council of Ministers’ Decree No. 98/11202 on 27 th. 05. 1998. The engineering and consultancy works of the project have been completed, but the contract has not yet been signed